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- Author:Nicole Oresme?
Volume Lynn Thorndike. Columbia University.
Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Article PDF first page preview. Issue Section:. From this, he noted that planetary conjunctions and oppositions would never recur in quite exactly the same way. Oresme maintained that this disproves the claims of astrologers who, thinking "they know with punctual exactness the motions, aspects, conjunctions and oppositions… [judge] rashly and erroneously about future events. Oresme's critique of astrology in his Livre de divinacions treats it as having six parts.
The first, essentially astronomy, the movements of heavenly bodies, he considers good science but not precisely knowable. The second part deals with the influences of the heavenly bodies on earthly events at all scales. Oresme does not deny such influence, but states, in line with a commonly held opinion, that it could either be that arrangements of heavenly bodies signify events, purely symbolically, or that they actually cause such events, deterministically.
Mediaevalist Chauncey Wood remarks that this major elision "makes it very difficult to determine who believed what about astrology. Oresme criticizes all of these as misdirected, though he accepts that prediction is a legitimate area of study, and argues that the effect on the weather is less well known than the effect on great events.
He observes that sailors and farmers are better at predicting weather than astrologers, and specifically attacks the astrological basis of prediction, noting correctly that the zodiac has moved relative to the fixed stars because of precession of the equinoxes since the zodiac was first described in ancient times.
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These first three parts are what Oresme considers the physical influences of the stars and planets including sun and moon on the earth, and while he offers critiques of them, he accepts that effects exist. The last three parts are what Oresme considers to concern good or bad fortune. They are interrogations, meaning asking the stars when to do things such as business deals; elections, meaning choosing the best time to do things such as getting married or fighting a war; and nativities, meaning the natal astrology with birth charts that forms much of modern astrological practice.
Oresme classifies interrogations and elections as "totally false" arts, but his critique of nativities is more measured. He denies that any path is predetermined by the heavenly bodies, because humans have free will, but he accepts that the heavenly bodies can influence behaviour and habitual mood, via the combination of humours in each person.
Overall, Oresme's skepticism is strongly shaped by his understanding of the scope of astrology. He accepts things a modern skeptic would reject, and rejects some things — such as the knowability of planetary movements, and effects on weather — that are accepted by modern science.
Nicole Oresme And The Astrologers : George William Coopland :
In discussing the propagation of light and sound, Oresme adopted the common medieval doctrine of the multiplication of species, as it had been developed by optical writers such as Alhacen, Robert Grosseteste, Roger Bacon, John Pecham, and Witelo. Oresme maintained that these species were immaterial, but corporeal i. Like most of his scholarly contemporaries, Oresme wrote primarily in Latin, but at the urging of King Charles V, he also wrote in French, providing French versions of his own works and of selected works by Aristotle. Oresme's most important contributions to mathematics are contained in Tractatus de configurationibus qualitatum et motuum.
In a quality, or accidental form, such as heat, he distinguished the intensio the degree of heat at each point and the extensio as the length of the heated rod. These two terms were often replaced by latitudo and longitudo. Nicole Oresme and the Astrologers: a Study of his Livre de divinacions, ed. George W. Coopland, Liverpool: Liverpool University Press. Le Livre du ciel et du monde, ed.
Menut, Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society. Nicole Oresme and the Kinematics of Circular Motion: Tractatus de commensu- rabilitate vel incommensurabilitate motuum celi, ed. Contro la divinazione: consigli antiastrologici al Re di Francia , ed. Ovid, Pliny, Rackham, Cambridge Mass. Jones, Cambridge Mass. Secretum secretorum, cum glossis et notulis, in Opera hactenus inedita Rogeri Baconi V, ed.
Nicole Oresme And The Astrologers : A Study Of His Livre De Divinacions
Rapisarda, Stefano, Rapisarda, Stefano, in press. Richter Sherman, Claire, Roger Bacon, Opus tertium, in Frater Rogeri Bacon Opera quaedam hactenus inedita, ed. John S. Sallustius, Ahlberg ed. Alphonsus Kurfess, Leipzig: Teubner. Salama-Carr, Myriam, Mona Baker, London: Routledge, pp.
Seneca, Annaei Senecae Naturalium Quaestionum Libros, ed. Harry M. Hine, Stuttgart — Leipzig: Teubner. Shahar, Shulamith, Taylor, R. W[ebb], Clement C. Fulton, The Classical Review, 35, pp. Willard, Charity Cannon, In addition, we have two letters, one addressed to King Jaume II and the other to Queen Blanca, and some fragments from other works.
Both texts refer to the obfuscations of false religious figures, whom Arnau identifies with his Dominican adversaries. Both witnesses are of key impor- tance. The translations themselves are free, original and suggestive. He also provides a sum- mary of a fragment of the Glossa ordinaria which he translates into Catalan.
Antoine Calvet In this article, we have attempted to take stock of the translations of works on alchemy attributed to the physician Arnau de Vilanova, limiting our corpus to those versions in Occitan and French. From our research we have con- cluded that in addition to enriching the lexicon, whether in Occitan or French, El saber Thus he does not hesitate to select and introduce comparisons which clarify the text, or in the Livre de Roussinus, invoke the protection of St Catherine, patron saint of philosophers, emphasising the theoretical rather than the technical range of medieval alchemy.
Furthermore, the tendency to gloss and expand on the text seems to confirm the hypothesis that in the fifteenth century the scribe transla- tor more often than not contents himself with inserting excerpts from other treatises and combining them with the text he is translating, as in the case of the Epistola ad regem Neapolitanum: alchemical commentary clarifying alche- my for alchemists. The Lullian texts circulating in print during this period share certain common characteristics. As a general rule, and with the exception of the most important printing centres, the texts are from the presses of men connected with local education.
Leaving the Venetian editions to one side, the first Lullian early printed editions were published in Barcelona. They were all commissioned by the Lull- ian School, which was active in the city until the end of the sixteenth century. Lullian manuscripts were also circulating in Paris and soon editions and trans- lations appeared there. The annotated Latin text in each of these editions was preceded by an introduction drafted by the editor himself. Together with Barcelona and Paris, one of the most productive printing centres in the final decade of the fifteenth century in terms of Lullian works was Seville, where texts from the pseudo-Lullian and para-Lullian corpus were published.
The Universidad Complutense is a good example of how, when the time came to select which Lullian texts were to be printed, that choice in Renaissance Europe was governed by ideological loyal- ties, teaching requirements and, as ever in the world of humanistic printing, editorial novelty.